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No apology is needed for placing in the hands of the public a 
standard compilation of the Semi- Angular, or Spkncerian Svstem 
Of Whiting. 

It is submitted in obedience to the popular call, tho demand of 
numerous adepts and teachers, the mass of most accomplished bus- 
iness writers, the most refined female preferences of our country, 
and therefore is an imperative duty. 

It will be welcomed by the teacher as a timely and friendly 
monitor; iu the counting-house as a fair exponent of what should 
constitute the living body-work of business transactions; in com- 
mercial schools and colleges it will facilitate tho advance of the stu- 
dent, in giving scientific form to books and papers of every business 
import, as he mastoid the science of accounts, and the usages of trade. 

The young inquirer of every condition and employment will 

seek its perusal and utility, to increase its chances of success and 
usefulness in busy life. ( 

From the center-table and scriptorium of the lady, it will lend 
its speaking imagery to grace the album of a friend, and delight 
the eye, while it bears abroad from soul to soul the mature thought 
and the rich treasures of the heart, through her cherished corre- 

The bright-cyed miss will sometimes forego her flower-bed, and 
the hopeful, playful boy his hoop and marble, to imbibe intellcctu- 
ally from its pages the first outline of speaking forms, destined to 
mould Uic early preference of mind, and model their written char- 
acters in after years, as surely as the unfolding bud will reveal tho 
perfect flower. A friendly greeting to all. 


The Acmoa. 

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Movements. (See Copy 33.) 

lu writing, four movements should be employed in training all the muscles, 
whose ready and disciplined use constitutes good work. 

1st, Mttsoulab Movement — which is the action of the forearm from the el- 
bow forward in all directiona The wrist an inch above the paper at C 3 and the 
forearm playing freely on tne movable rest at B. . 

This is the business writer's movement generally, on which he depends more 
than all others, both for the capital curves and the combination of the small 
letters. Wherever the letter E is attached to a copy in the book, \t means that 
a forearm or muscular exercise is intended to govern. 

(Now see page 3, copies 3, 4, 6.) 
All the ascending or hair lines of the principles, and letters formed of the 
principles, and the E on tho letters thus formed, the waved light linos which 
unite words in columns, and terminate them by a bold, heavy sweep to the 
left, at their base, on page 3, arc by muscular movement free, firm, and with 
a will. Romcmber, muscular is the true combining movement for all con- 
tracted letters. Practice also freely on copies 5, 17, and 19, especially. 

2d, Finger Movement— which means an extension and contraction of tho 
1st and 2d fingers and tho thumb. Such a movement, purely as such, scarcely 
exists in the specimons of tho correct and ready writer.' Those marks which 
come nearest requiring this movement purely are the .descending or central 
mark of the 1st, 2d, and 3d principles and tho whole of ihe 4th in copy 3, pago 
3; and even in Hiese, tho muscular movement preceding on their hair line, car- 
ries its steady, firm sympathy into tho downward mark. 

3d, Mixed or Compound Movement— which is a simultaneous action of the 
forearm, thumb, and fingers j or, protruding and receding movement of the arm, 
attended by thumb and ringer extension and contraction. This movement prac- 
ticed with sleight, produces the extended letters most beautifully. See copy 8, 
also stem oCp f h s y, k } q, z, copies 6 and 7. See also page 13. 

4th, Whole Arm Movement— this is the largest^ boldest movement em- 
ployed—training all the muscles into obedience from the shoulder forward. 
It. is formed, (see closing clause and letter A, left hand drawing, Card 1.) Tt 
should be practiced freely and frequently on the bold capital curves- of co^jtes 

91, 92, 98, 97, 107, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 131, 133, 136, 133, on the 
principles of flourishing ; and in the applied flourishes 146, in the capitals of 
page 39, etc, as the student writes the words of which the bold whole arm 
capitals are the initials. Also in the large oval copy 53. 


This disposition of letters, from the principles on which letters depend for 
root and government, may be profitably studied by those ambitious to know 
clearly the system. On pages 3, 4, 6, and 7, are grouped the classes thus de- 
rived, and their principles plainly drawn on pages 3, 4, and 5. Tho classes 
are — Contracted, Semi-contracted, or Compound Elevate. Purely Extended, 
and Capital. f . ' ( * * ' 




Principles. ' v 

With a view of forming a good, plain, easy chirogfa'phy, in tho use of the 
copies on the first 15 pages, the student will not only do well to understand 
pen holding, position, movements, and classification, but the structure aud 
application of principles in fprning letters. On principles depend just forma- 
tion. Principles are -fixed forms (see copies 33, 21, and 48,) for the structure 
of letters, and tho principle or principles employed to form a letter or combina- 
tion of lottcrs is designated by the proper figure and figures above them, as 
on page 3 to page 15 inclusive, etc. 

P also stands for principle, as in .copies -19 and 36. Mind tho principles 
specially. (See copy 48.) 

Each principle has its peculiarity, or distinct character,' very visible to the 
careful eye, very necessary in modeling distinct forms. 

Take the principles on the 3d copy. Look at the 1st. It has a gentle cort- 
, cave hair line on the left, a direct downward mark for its center, and the same 
gentle concave hair line on the right. Dot it and it becomes i % hop it narrow 
half way down and it is e, repeat it and it has the character of w, and so on. 

Look at the 2&principle, It is entirely the reverse of the 1st in its hair line, and 

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ia therefore distinct, though its downward mark is the same. Add the 1st prin- 
ciple shortened, to it on the right at top and it is r; add the third principle and 
it is w, and so on. 

Look at the 3d principle. It takes the character of the second on its left, 
and that of the first on its right, and is therefore a compound of the two, 
though its central or downward mark is the. same as the 1st and 2d. Look 
below, and you soe the third principle as tho right half of n y and the right third 
of m, and so on. ; \ \ 

Look at tho 4th principle. It is a gentle oval, whose width is one third its 
height ; and this is tho proportion we seek to give it, whether used as o simply, 
or as the left of tho compounds a, d, g t and g, with increased slope. Look at 
the lino noxt below these principles, and you can not but see the principles in 
the letters they form, as plainly as when the principles stand alono. Copy the 
principles many times, then the letters they form, as often; then the words 
formed of these letters in copy 4, then practice much on exorcise No. 6, copy 5, 
where the same letters again occur, and thus the third page will be made to 
form 60 per cent of your handwriting. 

Frequently practice copy 17, with muscular movement, to secure a freo com- 
bining power ; also copy 87. 

This is the way to study the principles as they are introduced ; the head in- 
quiring, the movements rendorod available, and tho pen kept busy doing as 
the head directs. * 


E means exorcise (see page 18). Wherever the printed or written occurs 
above or with a copy, it means free and bold movement is required in prominent 
curves and features of tho copy, in order to gain additional power to govern the 
pen. Muscular movement is required generally on the bold capital curves, and 
always to combine the contracted letters. Mind the exercises 1 (Try pago 18, 
again and again.) 

• * The Arrow. 

Tho arrow is used to indicate beginning and course (see copy 16). Mark well 
its indications in copy 17, 19, 29, 31, 32, 38, 39, 46, 47, 50, 63, 65, 66, 67, 109 

113, 116, 141, 144, 146, 157, 169, 176. *• « 

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"Will be governed in their special department, from page 41 to 50 inclusive, 
by the principles, scale, and exercises in principles, as they occur; modifying 
the prominent business character into lady's style. They will study the princi- 
ples and capitals with care, and by no means forget the flowing muscular com- 
bining movement, so essential to ease, beauty, and uniformity; see copies 167, 
159, 176, 179. "AH good uniform writers, both in epistolary and business styles, 
will form and maintain tho habit of writing through whole words without lifting 
tho pen. The road to good, froo, clean combination without this habit, is weary 
and endless. " A word to the wise is sufficient" 

+.S\4 Shading. . 


Some may regard tho shades, whore employed, as too bold. Mind where 
shades are used, and where .they aro not ; for a happy disposition of light and 
shade rendors writing an agreeable picture work. Try to reach the hold shad- 
ings in the copies ; for the ability to shade boldly does not require the necessity 
of bold shading where you prefer lighter ; yet the ability to shade heavily gives 
you a control in liglUer shading which you can gain in no other way. 

For this reason, heavy skating marks your specimens for imitation, which fow 
will reach ; but all who do, will glean a power that will show itself in the ease 
with which just what shading they prefer^ is done. Shade is matter of taste. 
Form is tho same whother-ligfator heavy. 

t r {Please look at page 54.) 

There, Freedom's sentinel -bird swoops down to deliver a messago of no idle 
import - Think and write I.. Two verbs in the imperative; the latter calling to 
us to labor diligently to secure tho art through which mind speaks to mind, and 
heart to heart / r/ • , 

No book now 'fefore: the, Dublic is calculated to secure a better channel of 
thought 'and record '.of lafo's^bings, than the one now before yon. Then study 
and imitate, ■ and -;pja<$e> >ite ? copies, its pages, and all that is in each, and sue- 

Tour friend, 







PI 47. 

A — Muscular rest of tlio forearm, near the elbow. 

B — Rest of tlio hand, on tho surface of the nails of the 3d and 4th fingora. 
C — Wrist, threo quarters to one inch from the table. 

J)— End of the thumb, opposite thu first joint of tho fore finger— drawn back 
so that one half the pen is in view. 

10— Three quarters of an inch from tho left corner of second linger nail to tho 
point of tlio "pen at 1. 

F— Pen crosses the forefinger just forward of the knuckle joint 

Qi—Uand well inclined over to the left, that its upper sur-faco may face tho ccil- 


inpr above, and tho nppcr end of tlio pen point to tho right shoulder. 
II — The right edge of die hand — which should novcr touch tho paper. 
I— The pen. held with the neb square on the paper, so that pressure will pro- 


tho smallest possible mark — and grasped just tight onough to guide ir, aud 
no more. 

K — End of the second finger dropped gently under the pen, which crosses it 
obliquely at tho root of tho nail. 

To produce whole arm movement, raise tho forearm some two inches and a 
half at A (see left drawing, Card ]), aud slide on lo tho movable rest at 13. 



or s s m i-a_in"otjij ajr pexmanship. 

Position for "Writing. 

Tosition gives power to do;. therefore study, and adopt in practice, the posi- 
tion of tho hand and pen as in Card 1 and explanation. 

Let the position of body and paper at the table or desk bo such that tho fore- 
arm will project naturally upon the paper at right angles therewith. 

At a sloping desk the left side should always be inclined to it. In writing on 
a Hat surfuco or table, good business writers select various positions, ireiinin 

thereto the left or right side, or sitting directly in front; but in cither position 
avoiding much pressure on the right forearm, lest they suppress muscular move- 

Tho easy writer of an uniform hand will throw out tho feet to harmonize 
with the slope of letters, and sit or stand as orect as practicable, and yet sco 
clearly the point where ho is writing, in order to preserve vital action and 
hcaltu* * 


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